Legal Landscape of Renewable Energy: Navigating Opportunities and Challenges

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Renewable energy is one of the fastest growing industries in Australia, with significant potential for economic, social and environmental benefits. Australia has vast solar, wind, and land resources that give it a strong competitive advantage in transitioning to renewable energy.1 The renewable energy workforce is projected to grow significantly, with up to 193,900 workers required by 2050 across solar, wind, storage, hydrogen generation, and transmission infrastructure.3 This represents an increase of around 167,900 new workers needed compared to 2020 levels. Wind power is poised for rapid expansion, with projected revenue growth of 52.6% in 2023/2024 after nearly a five-fold increase over the past decade.4

However, the legal landscape of renewable energy is complex and dynamic, with various opportunities and challenges for businesses and investors. This article aims to provide an overview of the key legal issues and considerations for the renewable energy sector in Australia, including the regulatory framework, the market mechanisms, the contractual arrangements, the environmental and planning approvals, and the dispute resolution options. Each renewable energy project is unique and this article does not cover all legal and regulatory considerations.

Regulatory Framework

The renewable energy sector in Australia is regulated by a combination of federal, state and territory laws and policies, as well as industry codes and standards. The main federal legislation governing the sector is the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 (Cth), which establishes the Renewable Energy Target (RET) scheme. The RET scheme is designed to encourage the generation of electricity from renewable sources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The scheme consists of two parts: the Large-scale Renewable Energy Target (LRET) and the Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme (SRES). The LRET creates a market for renewable energy certificates (RECs) that are issued to accredited large-scale renewable energy power stations, such as wind farms, solar farms and hydroelectric plants. The SRES provides financial incentives for the installation of small-scale renewable energy systems, such as rooftop solar panels. The RECs can be traded and sold to liable entities, such as electricity retailers and large energy users, who are required to surrender a certain number of RECs each year to meet their obligations under the RET scheme.

In addition to the federal legislation, each state and territory has its own laws and policies that affect the renewable energy sector. For example, some states and territories have set their own renewable energy targets, feed-in tariffs, grants, loans and subsidies for renewable energy projects and consumers. Some states and territories also have specific legislation and regulations for certain types of renewable energy, such as wind energy, solar energy and bioenergy. Therefore, it is important for businesses and investors to be aware of the different legal requirements and incentives that apply in each jurisdiction where they operate or intend to operate.

Market Mechanisms

The renewable energy sector in Australia operates within the National Electricity Market (NEM), which is the wholesale market for electricity supply and demand in the eastern and southern states and territories. The NEM is governed by the National Electricity Law and the National Electricity Rules, which are administered by the Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC), the Australian Energy Regulator (AER) and the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO). The NEM operates as a spot market, where the price of electricity is determined by the interaction of supply and demand every five minutes. The NEM also has a number of ancillary services and mechanisms, such as frequency control, network support, reliability and emergency reserve, and demand response, that are essential for maintaining the security and stability of the power system.

The renewable energy sector also participates in the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) and the Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC), which are two independent federal agencies that support the development and deployment of renewable energy technologies and projects in Australia. ARENA provides funding, knowledge and networks for renewable energy innovation, research, demonstration and commercialisation. CEFC provides finance, expertise and co-investment for renewable energy projects, businesses and programs that have positive environmental and economic outcomes. Both ARENA and CEFC work closely with the renewable energy industry, government, research institutions and other stakeholders to accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy.

Contractual Arrangements

The renewable energy sector in Australia involves a range of contractual arrangements between different parties, such as developers, owners, operators, contractors, suppliers, off-takers, financiers, insurers and regulators. These contracts cover various aspects of the renewable energy project lifecycle, such as development, construction, operation, maintenance, connection, dispatch, sale, purchase, financing and insurance. Some of the common types of contracts in the renewable energy sector are:

  • Power purchase agreements (PPAs): These are long-term contracts between renewable energy generators and electricity buyers, such as retailers, large energy users or government agencies, that specify the terms and conditions for the sale and purchase of electricity and RECs. PPAs provide a stable and predictable revenue stream for renewable energy projects, as well as a hedge against price volatility and regulatory uncertainty. PPAs can be structured in different ways, such as fixed-price, indexed-price, hybrid-price, contract-for-difference, or synthetic PPAs, depending on the risk appetite and preferences of the parties.
  • Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contracts: These are contracts between renewable energy project developers or owners and EPC contractors, who are responsible for designing, building, commissioning and handing over the project to the owner. EPC contracts typically include provisions for the scope of work, the project schedule, the contract price, the performance guarantees, the liquidated damages, the variations, the defects liability, the warranties, the indemnities and the dispute resolution.
  • Operation and maintenance (O&M) contracts: These are contracts between renewable energy project owners and O&M contractors, who are responsible for operating, maintaining, repairing and replacing the project assets and equipment. O&M contracts usually include provisions for the scope of services, the service fees, the performance standards, the availability guarantees, the spare parts, the reporting, the health and safety, the environmental compliance and the dispute resolution.
  • Connection agreements: These are contracts between renewable energy project owners and network service providers, who are responsible for connecting the project to the electricity grid and providing network services, such as transmission, distribution and ancillary services. Connection agreements typically include provisions for the connection process, the connection assets, the connection charges, the technical standards, the network access, the network performance, the network augmentation, the curtailment, the metering and the dispute resolution.

These contracts are usually interrelated and interdependent, and require careful drafting, negotiation and management to ensure the successful delivery and operation of the renewable energy project. They also need to comply with the relevant laws and regulations, as well as the industry best practices and standards, that apply to the renewable energy sector.

Environmental and Planning Approvals

The renewable energy sector in Australia is subject to various environmental and planning approvals at the federal, state and territory, and local levels. These approvals are required to ensure that the renewable energy projects are consistent with the environmental objectives and planning policies of the relevant jurisdictions, and that they minimise and mitigate any potential adverse impacts on the environment, the community and the heritage. Some of the common types of environmental and planning approvals for the renewable energy sector are:

  • Environmental impact assessment (EIA): This is a process of identifying, assessing and managing the environmental impacts of a proposed renewable energy project, and obtaining the necessary environmental approvals from the relevant authorities. The EIA process may involve different stages, such as screening, scoping, preparation, review, decision, implementation and monitoring, depending on the nature, scale and location of the project. The EIA process may also require public consultation and participation, as well as the consideration of alternative options and mitigation measures.
  • Planning permission: This is a process of obtaining the necessary planning approvals from the relevant authorities for the use and development of land for a proposed renewable energy project. The planning permission process may involve different steps, such as pre-application consultation, application submission, application assessment, public notification, public submissions, public hearing, decision, appeal and compliance, depending on the planning scheme and the planning regulations that apply to the project. The planning permission process may also require the consideration of various planning criteria and objectives, such as the zoning, the overlay, the development plan, the design and the amenity.
  • Environmental licences and permits: These are specific authorisations that are required for certain activities or aspects of a renewable energy project that may have environmental implications, such as the generation, transmission, distribution, storage, disposal or emission of electricity, water, waste, noise, air, flora, fauna or chemicals. The environmental licences and permits are issued by the relevant authorities, and may include conditions, limitations, obligations and reporting requirements for the project owner or operator.

These environmental and planning approvals are essential for the lawful and responsible development and operation of the renewable energy project. They also involve significant time, cost and risk for the project owner or developer, and require extensive consultation and coordination with the relevant authorities, stakeholders and consultants.

Dispute Resolution

The renewable energy sector in Australia may encounter various disputes between different parties, such as developers, owners, operators, contractors, suppliers, off-takers, financiers, insurers, regulators and consumers. These disputes may arise from various sources, such as contractual breaches, performance failures, payment defaults, regulatory changes, environmental impacts, planning objections, technical faults, force majeure events or market fluctuations. These disputes may have significant financial, operational and reputational consequences for the parties involved, and may require effective and efficient resolution.

The renewable energy sector in Australia may adopt different methods of dispute resolution, such as negotiation, mediation, arbitration, litigation or hybrid processes, depending on the nature, complexity and urgency of the dispute, as well as the preferences and interests of the parties. These methods of dispute resolution may have different advantages and disadvantages, such as the cost, the time, the confidentiality, the flexibility, the enforceability and the finality of the outcome. The parties may also choose to include dispute resolution clauses in their contracts, or to refer to dispute resolution rules or institutions, that govern the procedure and the substance of the dispute resolution process.


The renewable energy sector in Australia is a dynamic and diverse industry that offers significant opportunities and challenges for businesses and investors. The legal landscape of renewable energy is complex and evolving, with various laws, policies, mechanisms, contracts, approvals and disputes that affect the sector. It is important for businesses and investors to understand and navigate the legal landscape of renewable energy, and to seek professional advice and assistance when necessary, to ensure the successful and sustainable development and operation of their renewable energy projects.

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Connor James

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